Terminology[ edit ] The Chinese language has various terms equivalent to the English “Overseas Chinese” which refers to Chinese citizens residing in countries other than China: Literally, it means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China when it was ruling China proper. This term is commonly used by the Cantonese , Hoochew , Hakka and Hokkien as a colloquial reference to the Chinese people, and has little relevance to the ancient dynasty. Chinese emigration The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty when Zheng He — became the envoy of Ming. Qing Dynasty and Republic of China[ edit ] photo of Indonesian-Chinese family from Hubei ancestry, the second and third generations When China was under the imperial rule of the Qing Dynasty , subjects who left the Qing Empire without the Administrator’s consent were considered to be traitors and were executed. Their family members faced consequences as well.
Printer-Friendly Version This article is an edited chapter on the major historical events and contemporary characteristics of the Chinese American community, excerpted from The New Face of Asian Pacific America: They have endured a long history of migration and settlement that dates back to the late s, including some 60 years of legal exclusion. In the mid-l9th century, most Chinese immigrants arrived in Hawaii and the U.
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Indonesia Amid concern of growing religious conservatism across Indonesia and an increase in anti-Chinese sentiment, a massive statue in East Java has been covered after protests from local Muslims. The Kwan Sing Bio Chinese temple had existed without issue in the city of Tuban for generations, but the Muslim locals could not stand a metre statue recently erected there. Islamic groups want the metre statue to be destroyed. The brightly coloured statue of a Chinese god is thought to be the highest in South-East Asia and was difficult to cover even with the large white sheeting it now hides under.
Islamic groups are demanding the statue be destroyed because it does not reflect the nationalism of Indonesia and is a betrayal of Indonesian identity. The Muslim protestors also say the statue does not reflect the official religion of Indonesians. Tuban’s deputy police chief, Fadly Samad, said the statue was covered to maintain security and order. There is concern among the Indonesian Chinese community about growing discrimination, fuelled in part by the blasphemy charges laid against the Christian former governor Basuki Tjahja Purnama, who is also known as Ahok.
Ahok is serving a two-year prison sentence for insulting the Koran in a case that has been linked to growing Islamic conservatism across the nation. Indonesia is the world’s largest Muslim nation. First posted August 11,
Chinese god statue covered in sheet after Muslims protest in Indonesian city
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The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat Ki Hajar Dewantara , when in he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE. They arrived around 2, BCE, and as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions. Indonesia’s strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and China, which were established several centuries BCE.
This period marked a renaissance of Hindu- Buddhist art in ancient Java. In Bali, the Warmadewas established their rule on the Kingdom of Bali in the 10th century. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada , its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the company became the dominant European power in the archipelago. The Netherlands tried to re-establish their rule, and an armed and diplomatic struggle ensued. In December , the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure,   with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea , which was later incorporated into Indonesia following the New York Agreement and the disputed  UN-mandated Act of Free Choice in that led to the still-ongoing Papua conflict.
Despite major internal political, social and sectarian divisions during the four-year struggle, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence. In the late s, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the Communist Party of Indonesia Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI. His New Order administration  was supported by the United States,    and encouraged foreign direct investment , which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth.
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The study by The Australian National University ANU found Homo floresiensis , dubbed “the hobbits” due to their small stature, were most likely a sister species of Homo habilis — one of the earliest known species of human found in Africa 1. Data from the study concluded there was no evidence for the popular theory that Homo floresiensis evolved from the much larger Homo erectus , the only other early hominid known to have lived in the region with fossils discovered on the Indonesian mainland of Java.
It means these two shared a common ancestor,” Dr Argue said. Where previous research had focused mostly on the skull and lower jaw, this study used data points ranging across the skull, jaws, teeth, arms, legs and shoulders. Dr Argue said none of the data supported the theory that Homo floresiensis evolved from Homo erectus. All the tests say it doesn’t fit — it’s just not a viable theory.
Stuart Hay, ANU Dr Argue said the analyses could also support the theory that Homo floresiensis could have branched off earlier in the timeline, more than 1. Homo floresiensis occupied a very primitive position on the human evolutionary tree,” Professor Lee said.
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The major geographical theorist of the empire was actually a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in and assigned to Tobolsk , where he associated with Peter’s Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev , and was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography.
Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg. The latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid th century. The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are often considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea , to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania.
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Indonesia (/ ˌ ɪ n d ə ˈ n iː ʒ ə / (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə, /-z i ə /-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndoneˈsia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [rɛpublik ɪndoneˈsia]), [lacks stress] is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world’s largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands, and.
It is believed that Indonesia must have existed during the Pleistocene period 4 million years BC when it was linked with the present Asian mainland. It was during this period that the Homonids made their first appearance and Java Man inhabited the part of the world now called Indonesia. Java Man, named Pithecanthropus Erectus by Eugence Dubois who found the fossils on the island of Java, must have been the first inhabitant of Indonesia. When the sea level rose as the result of melting ice north of Europe and the American continent, many islands emerged, including the Indonesian archipelago.
It was also during this period BC that Indonesia was inhabited by Sub-Mongoloid migrants from Asia who later inter-married with the indigenous people. The first Indian migrants came primarily from Gujarat in Southeast India during the first Christian era. The Devanagari script of the Sanskrit language was also used, as shown in ancient stone and copper inscriptions paracasthies which have been unearthed.
The language and script were adapted and called the Kawi language and included words and phrases derived from Javanese. Early trade relations were established between South India and Indonesia. Sumatra was then named Swarna Dwipa of “the island of gold,” Java was called Java Dwipa or “the rice island,” and a Hindu kingdom of Crivijaya in Sumatra and Nalanda in South India were not confined to religious and cultural exchanges.
They later developed diplomatic relations, and even covered a wide range of trade. The influx of Indian settlers continued during the period from the first to the seventh century AD. Peacefully and gradually the Hindu religion spread throughout the archipelago. It was adopted by all layers of the people of Java, but limited to the upper classes on the other islands.